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Open & Closed Kinetic Chain (OKC / CKC)

Aktualisiert: Juni 3

There are two kinds ofkinetic chainexercises:open and closed. Inopen kinetic chainexercises, the segment furthest away from the body — known as the distal aspect, usually the hand or foot — is free and not fixed to an object. In aclosed chainexercise, it is fixed, or stationary.


Closed kinetic chainexercises orclosed chainexercises (CKC) are physical exercises performed where the hand (for arm movement) or foot (for leg movement) is fixed in space and cannot move. The extremity remains in constant contact with the immobile surface, usually the ground or the base of a machine.


TheKinetic Chainis a way of describing human movement and itcaneither be anopen kinetic chainor aclosed kinetic chain(CKC). In anopen kinetic chainthe segment furthest away from the body( eg foot) is free and not fixed to an object. In aclosed kinetic chainthe segment furthest away from the body is fixed.


In aclosed chain, the end of thechainfarthest from the body is fixed. A good example is the squat, in which your feet are fixed on the floor and the rest of the legchain(and torso) moves. Inopen-chainexercises, the end is free, such as during a seated leg extension.


Closed ChainLower BodyKinetic Exercises===Examplesinclude squats, deadlifts, lunges, power cleans, and leg presses. These concentrate on a co-contraction of the quadriceps, hamstrings, hip flexors, soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. The joints of movement include the knee, hip, and ankle.


Theconceptwas introduced by Franz Reuleaux, a mechanical engineer, in 1875. He proposed that rigid, overlapping segments were connected via joints and thiscreateda system whereby movement at one joint produced or affected movement at another joint in the kinetic link. In 1995, Dr.


Closed chainstend to involve more muscles and joints thanopen chainsand lead tobettercoordination around each structure, which improves overall stability. The best knownclosed chain exercisesfor your legs are squats and lunges.


A healthy body is often described as a well-oiled machine. Like a machine, it’s made up of otherwise fixed segments given mobility by joints. A kinetic chain is the notion that these joints and segments have an effect on one another during movement. When one is in motion, it creates a chain of events that affects the movement of neighboring joints and segments. Physical therapists, chiropractors, and personal trainers use kinetic chain exercises to help with injury prevention and recovery, body sculpting, and performance enhancement.

Open vs. closed kinetic chain exercises There are two kinds of kinetic chain exercises: open and closed.

  • In open kinetic chain exercises, the segment furthest away from the body — known as the distal aspect, usually the hand or foot — is free and not fixed to an object.

  • In a closed chain exercise, it is fixed, or stationary.

Dr. Eric Hegedus, founding chair of the doctor of physical therapy department at High Point University in North Carolina, explains the easiest way to determine the distance: “In closed chain exercise, the foot or hand is in contact with the surface on which you are exercising. In open chain, they are not.” A squat, for example, where the foot presses against the floor to raise the body, is a closed chain kinetic exercise. Using a leg curl machine, where the lower leg swings freely, is an example of open chain. Both have advantages, according to Dr. Hegedus.


“The biggest advantage of open chain exercises is that they are far better at isolating a muscle,” says Hegedus. This can be useful when rehabilitating a specific muscle or when training for a sport that requires the use of open chain activities. An example is throwing a ball.

But closed chain exercises are more functional, “or closely approximate to movements that you would use in daily life or sports.” This includes squatting to pick up furniture or bending to pick up a child. Because the load is shared with other nearby muscles, closed chain exercises may be preferred in some injury recovery.





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